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Задание №S1_01

As soon as spring brings a new growth of bushes and berries, bears start feeding. They eat and eat. All through the spring and summer their feeding goes on. The bears build themselves up. They store food and fats that they will need in the fall when they start their long sleep.

As days grow shorter, and the temperature begins to fall, bears hunt for a sleeping place. It may be a shallow cave, or a deep crack between rocks. Some bears end up sleeping in hollow logs. Logs seem to be bears’ favourite places. Bears seem to choose small spaces. They can keep warmer in a cave that’s just large enough to hold them than in a larger cave. They often line their sleeping place with leaves and dried grass.

All through their winter naps, bears will not eat. Often they will sleep for 7 months, moving only now and then.

Задание №S1_02 

Many lands that had once been swamps were drained or filled in. There are different reasons why people drained swamplands. Some were drained to fight diseases caused by insects that lived in them. Because swamps were considered unpleasant places in which to live and harmful to health, many people thought that unless they were drained the land was worthless.

Other swamps were drained to make new land. As the population grew and more land was needed, people drained swamps or filled them to make room for more farms and factories, more roads and airports.

Few people thought that it might be harmful to get rid of swamps. As swamps disappeared, other things happened. There were both more floods and more droughts than before. There were also more fires, for swamps had acted as firebreaks. Hunters noticed that there was less wild game. Wild life that once lived in the swamps was dying out, because it had no place to live.

Задание №S1_03

A hobby is an activity you enjoy doing, it is something of your choice, something unique to your taste and talent. A hobby can improve our well-being; it can give more meaning to our life. Just as physical exercise is important for the body, relaxation of the mind is also essential. In fact, studies reveal that people who cultivate themselves through such activities are less likely to suffer from anxieties, depression and other negative feelings. A hobby is the easiest way to restore your balance whenever you are over-worked or stressed. Since it is an activity of your choosing, it will always give you pleasure and help you to relax. Even if you indulge in your hobby for a short period of time, you still can feel the difference in your energy level and spirit. When you have a hobby, you will always find time for it.

Задание №S1_04

The first maps were drawn by explorers to help them find their way home and show people where they had been. The maps showed the shape of the land, distances between places and special features such as caves and old trees. Nowadays, maps show the towns and villages, and the roads, railways, rivers and mountains. Symbols are used to show all the different things on a map and there is a key to explain what the symbols stand for.

Over the centuries, people explored most of the Earth and put together the map of the world we use today. Maps of the world or large areas are often either “political” or “physical”. The political map shows territorial borders. The purpose of the physical map is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use including roads, railroads and buildings.

Задание №S1_05

People have enjoyed sports for thousands of years. Children, men and women play sports both for pleasure and for challenge. Every sport involves physical skill. Every sport has a set of rules that the players of the sport follow. In some sports one person competes against other individuals. Examples of these sports include boxing, tennis and so on. In many games one team competes against the other team.

People can go in for winter and summer sports. Summer sports are typical for warmer countries. Those who live in regions that experience cold winters have long enjoyed ice skating, skiing, and sledding. These activities have grown immensely in popularity over the years. Today thousands of resorts cater to the winter tourist trade, and millions of people each year take winter sports vacations.

Задание №S1_06

If you want to think and live green, the first thing you should reconsider is how you use water. Water shortages are a big problem all over the world. So, it is important to get serious about saving water. Check if there is any leak and fix it as you may be losing a lot of water because of it.

There are also many lifestyle changes you can introduce to save more water. Don’t run the tap when you brush your teeth. It’s also a good idea to install a special water-saving shower head. You may also shorten your time in the shower and prefer showers to baths. If you are going to use a dishwasher or a washing machine, make sure it’s full. It will also help you to save water and energy. You can use only cold water to wash your linen and collect grey water for watering plants. Finally, a lot of water is wasted in the kitchen while cooking or rinsing dishes, so install special devices to control the use of water in the kitchen.

Задание №S1_07

Being with other people is definitely a key part of happiness. There is a broad agreement among happiness researchers and scientists that social relations are essential for people’s happiness. Certainly, basic living standards are essential for well-being too. Still, after the baseline has been made, happiness varies more with quality of human relationships than income.

People have a basic need to feel connected with others, and close, caring bonds with other people play a major part in our motivation and behaviour. We are social creatures, and the importance of this is clearly seen when one compares the satisfaction people feel in relationships with their overall satisfaction with life. The most important social relationships appear to be the ones where you experience things together with others, sharing thoughts and feelings as well as giving and receiving support.

Задание №S1_08

Many people want to write a book at some point of their life. Now anyone can manage it if they follow some simple steps. First of all, one needs to understand what the book is going to be about. Then it’s time to think about the genre. It should suit the idea and be attractive for the potential readers. The next logical step would be to outline the story and write the first draft.

It’s also necessary to think of a good beginning. The first pages should catch the reader’s eye — it’s they which can either make or break the book. If these pages are not good enough, most readers will just lose their interest and will never return to the book again. At this point one should also organize their writing space and set their writing routine. Many writers have word count goals per day to keep the process going. Finally, one may self-publish the book on the Internet and wait for the response.

Задание №S1_09

Scientists are certain that the art of writing was known to the Chinese as early as 2000 BC. It is not very easy to learn the Chinese writing system. This is so because the Chinese language doesn’t have any alphabet. Each word of the language is represented by a symbol or even a combination of several symbols. This means the language has to have as many symbols as the total number of words in it.

It is enough to know about 25,000 symbols to use Chinese in the written form well. One may think it is a hopeless task to learn so many symbols. However, it is not like that because many symbols look like the corresponding real life objects. Considering the number of symbols in the Chinese language, it is especially interesting to know that the Chinese invented a kind of a printing press in the 10th century. It is much earlier than the printing press in Europe.

Задание №S1_10

The Stone Age man used natural glass. He found it by chance. He used it to make weapons, ornaments and money. Then people learned to produce glass. We don’t know much about how it happened. They say that Africa was may be one of the original centers to make glass. Ancient traders sold glass in the Mediterranean countries.

Egypt was one more country where people could make glass at an early time. The first glass object was created around 3500 BC in Egypt. We know for sure that this industry was very popular in Egypt. The Egyptians learned to press glass into molds. In the 1st century local craftsmen discovered how to blow glass. Before that, glass was very expensive. Only really wealthy people could buy glass. Thanks to this invention, everyone could afford it. Egypt produced a lot of glass things. We can still see some of them in museums.

Задание №S1_11

Electricity has changed our life in many ways. We can now stay up longer and devote more time to work, studies or entertainment because we don’t depend on the daylight anymore. Still, lighting your home needs energy and you should never forget about energy-saving measures in your household.

If you want to run an eco-friendly household, an important thing is to invest in the right light bulbs. Energy-saving light bulbs are more efficient than the old ones. They have actually been in our shops for a long time, but it has taken people much time to come round to the idea. Energy-saving light bulbs are slightly more expensive than ordinary ones but they are certainly not a waste of money. Such light bulbs use much less electricity thus cutting your electricity bill down. They also last longer, which means you don’t have to spend money replacing them. One energy-saving light bulb can substitute six ordinary ones.

Задание №S1_12

Birds live everywhere. They vary from pigeons in big cities to penguins in the Antarctic. However, all birds have similar features. For example, they all have wings. Still, not all of them can fly. All birds also have feathers. In fact, birds are the only living animals that have feathers. Birds build nests, in which female birds lay eggs.

Birds are warm-blooded. It means that their body temperature stays about the same. It doesn’t depend much on the temperature of their surroundings. Mammals, including humans, are also warm-blooded.

Birds have always fascinated people. Many people keep birds as pets. We also enjoy watching them in the wild or at zoos. In addition, farmers raise chickens, ducks and geese for their meat and eggs. Also, some people are quite fond of bird hunting.

Задание №S1_13

It is hard to imagine the world today without air travel. In the past people were always dreaming about the sky. We know many old legends about ancient people who learned to fly. We can still read these myths in books. Heroes of these books had some magical power. In the 18th century people started to use hot air balloons. This is how they travelled by air. Then the invention of planes changed the way we travel. It made travelling very easy. Planes gave us a great chance to explore every part and corner of the world. Coping with natural disasters like floods also became much easier.

The Wright Brothers from the USA invented the first airplane. It happened in the 19th century. After high school they started to do experiments and research to develop an airplane. Their interest and passion for planes led to the development of the first plane.

Задание №S1_14

A translation service is a Roman invention. Romans employed scholars to translate various pieces of literature. It is not very easy to be a translator. Firstly, you should know both the language you translate from and the one you translate into. It was stated by the English scholar Roger Bacon, and it is still important today. Secondly, translators are often hidden characters. They are unnamed people who have paved the way for us to learn about ideas and theories from other cultures.

In the past, working as a translator was really dangerous in some cases. Translators were needed in long overseas voyages to distant lands, and such journeys didn’t always end successfully. Translators even have their patron saint — Saint Jerome. He was the first person to produce a legal translation of the Bible. Thirdly, any mistake that a translator makes may turn out to be a very costly one.

Задание №S1_15

People use paper every day. Still, few of us think about where and how it was invented. In the past people used various plants to write. It could be bamboo or rice. They also had animal skins to write. Paper was invented in China many centuries ago. It was thin and made from vegetable fiber or old cloth. The technology of producing paper moved from China to Japan. Then it moved to Korea where they usually made it from tree bark.

Only much later the invention spread to the Middle East. As the legend goes, the secret of making paper was obtained from two prisoners of war. Then the first paper mills were founded. Both Spain and Italy claim to be the first to manufacture paper in Europe. Until the 19th century, rags were the main ingredient for paper. Then people discovered that wood could be pulped and turned into paper.

Задание №S1_16

Rabbits are nice-looking small animals. They look much like hares and have long ears and short tails. They live in most countries of the world. There are some interesting facts about rabbits. For instance, there are over 150 colours of coats of rabbits but only five colours of their eyes. One more funny fact about rabbits is that they can hear what is happening behind them without turning their head. At first people treated rabbits as a good and cheap source of tasty meat and fur for winter clothes. However, rabbits breed too fast — a rabbit can have up to 38 babies in one year. That is why in many parts of the world they have become pests. Some countries such as Australia still find it really hard to control the constantly growing population of rabbits. Now many people like to keep rabbits as pets. They are quite friendly and allow children to play with them.

Задание №S1_17

At its height the population of the city of Rome was probably over 1 million

people. However, the Roman Empire was an agricultural society. Most people there made their living from farming. It means that only a small part of the population lived in towns. In the Roman Empire there were two types of people — citizens and non-citizens. Roman citizens had certain privileges. Women had a kind of limited Roman citizenship. They could not vote or hold a public office.

Many of the inhabitants of Rome were slaves. Prisoners of war were made slaves and any children slaves had were also slaves. A slave’s life was terrible. Most were probably treated reasonably just to keep them working well. Slaves who worked in mines probably suffered most. Some slaves did manage to save enough money to buy their freedom. Others were granted their freedom by their owners.

Задание №S1_18

If you are looking for ideas to design your living space, think about your friends’ homes which truly inspire you. When you visit your friends and family, think how you feel in their homes. You may find some of them cluttered with too many decorations or being too bold for your style. However, even such houses may give you an idea of what you certainly don’t want to have in your flat.

Understanding how you feel in actual living spaces can help you find out which style you want to bring into your own home. If there is a home in particular where you feel comfortable, relaxed, and rested, you should think about what elements of these living spaces you like best, and which ones you can copy. Moreover, if you have a friend who has a style much like your own, ask him or her to help you as you work on your own room design.

Задание №S1_19

When you are thinking of starting to live green, your cooking habits are probably the last area where you think you need some improvement. However, being smart in the kitchen is very important for a truly eco-friendly lifestyle. One important example is that you can lose a lot of heat if you open an oven door while baking something. Even if you do it for a short period of time, it will take a significant amount of energy to heat the oven back up.

Another important problem is buying pre-packaged products. Billions of plastic packages like milk bottles or coffee capsules end up in landfills. It is much better to buy products with packages that can be recycled. Use energy-saving cooking methods and turn on your dishwasher only when it’s full. Don’t buy too much food not to throw the leftovers away. These simple steps are in fact a great contribution to fighting environmental problems.

Задание №S1_20

If you want to live green, you will have to reconsider many aspects of your life. Housecleaning is certainly one of them. We clean our homes on a regular basis, but we rarely think about what products we use to do it. Using harmful chemicals to clean is very bad for the environment. When you wash them away, you are simply putting them into the global water supply. This means water will have to take more purification before it is safe enough to use it again.

The obvious solution is to use natural products like vinegar, lemons and soda which can easily cope with most dirt in your house. When you go shopping for cleaning products, make sure they don’t contain any harmful ingredients. Do not forget that some cleaning products may actually be toxic and thus damage your health, so check for that as well. This is an easy way to contribute to fighting pollution all over the world.

Задание №S1_21

Horses are beautiful and powerful animals that can be found in almost every country in the world. They have oval-shaped hooves, long tails, short hair and long, slender legs. Horses have long been domesticated by people. In the past, they were the most common means of travelling and transportation. Farmers also used them as a source of motive power. Today, horses still serve in work roles.

However, they are just as common for sport, recreation and hobby. Domestication of horses has led to wide variations in the characteristics of breeds of horses. They vary from very slim to massive. Some horses are built for speed, strength or steadiness. The most valuable ones are certainly a combination of these important qualities.

Horses are highly social herd animals. They prefer to live in a group. There is always a dominant horse in the herd, while others obey it. The dominant horse directs the behaviour of others.

Задание №S1_22

A long time ago men learnt how to make structures with walls and roofs to protect themselves from bad weather and wild animals. These ancient structures were quite primitive and very different from modern  buildings. Still, they gave people shelter and comfort which they needed. Now there are many types of buildings in the world. They vary in size, shape and function.

There are several factors which influence the construction of a building. Firstly, builders need to consider which building materials are available or suit better. Secondly, they must know what a building is going to be used for. Moreover, they should think about land prices and climate in the area where they are going to construct a building. It is not a very good idea to build a house with big windows in the north or construct a lot of detached houses in the city centre where land is very expensive.

Задание №S1_23

When you are going to design a room, it is a good idea to think about the psychology of colour. When you plan your space, keep in mind that different colours, textures and layouts can have an impact on the way people feel in your room. Colour in particular can influence people’s mood.

Red is associated with passion and anger, and can even cause headaches. It is a great accent colour for one wall, or for a couch or another piece of furniture, but some experts suggest that you should not paint an entire room red. Green is associated with calm and rest, and is a great colour for living rooms and bedrooms. However, too much green might take the energy out of a room, so you should combine it with a bit of red or orange to counteract its calming effects. Blue is also known as a calming and intellectual colour, but it can also appear cold unless you choose a blue with a warm base instead of a cool base.

Задание №S1_24

Thanks to their industries, British towns grew into cities in the late 1800s. Many people became much better off, and their standards of living improved greatly. Rich families even had houses with bathrooms.

At that time the British took advantage of new railway lines built to carry people and goods from one part of the country to another. For the first time people could travel long distances quickly and cheaply. Steam engines were used to power locomotives as well as boats. One more improvement was the setup of a cheap postal service. Streets were lit by gas lamps, so they became safe. Special men lit the lamps every evening. People could also travel around the city cheaply using the horse-drawn buses. Some people, even women, started to ride bicycles. So, Great Britain and the British people were celebrating their wealth.

Задание №S1_25

A smart home is a dream of many modern families. The idea of smart homes started with the introduction of simple sensors to turn things on. For example, as you walk towards the front door, light turns on. Since that time smart home technologies have made a huge progress. It is no more an expensive thing — more and more people all over the world can now afford smart homes.

You don’t have to buy a smart home — you can install smart home technologies in your old property. Smart homes control things like lighting and heating for you, helping you to save money. Moreover, smart homes are a green way of living as most of them use solar energy and also make selective recycling easier. The best thing is you don’t have to think about many things anymore — your smart home will tell you what clothes are the best choice for today and what food you have run out of. Life in smart homes is very comfortable.

Задание №S1_26

People all over the world love Christmas. In English-speaking countries it is the 25th of December. It is a time for buying and giving presents, having parties and being with family.

People start to get ready for Christmas in late October or early November. Shop keepers decorate their shops with lights. They do it because shoppers start to look for presents. Shops are very busy at this time and stay open late. People with family and friends in other countries often send them cards and presents. Everyone begins to make plans for the coming holiday. Most people buy Christmas trees and put them inside the house. They put colourful decorations on them. They also sing carols. Children enjoy Advent calendars with little doors for each day until Christmas. Every day they open a new door and see a picture or a chocolate inside.

Задание №S1_27

A plant is a living organism. It can’t move. It can’t feel either. Scientists divide plants by their structure and method of reproduction. There are two main types of plants. The first type is flowering plants. They have flowers and seeds. The second type is flowerless plants. They do not have flowers and reproduce by small one-celled spores. Both types of plants can be of a different size and complexity. The main parts of a plant are the leaves, flowers, stems, roots and seeds. A seed has its own food supply. Later it will help the future plant to grow. Stems grow upward above the ground. There are leaves in a pattern along the stem. Roots give support to plants.

Plants need food. Some of them are self-supporting, others are dependent. Plants get their food from water and air. Some plants make oxygen as a result of the feeding process.

Задание №S1_28

Like everywhere else, people in English-speaking countries enjoy different festivals and celebrations in each of the four seasons. Food, family and flowers are an important part of most celebrations. Most people like to have a family dinner on such days. A lot of people give chocolate and other sweets as presents, and some festivals have their special food.

Restaurants and cafés are usually very busy on these days. As for flower shops, they sell a lot of flowers. People today often live far away from their families, so they send greeting cards at special times like Christmas, or Mother’s Day, or Easter. Post offices and telephones are very busy too. Of course, times change, and festivals also change. But people have celebrated many of these festivals for hundreds of years and will still enjoy them in many years.

Задание №S1_29

Scientists have been trying to get into the world of animals for a long time. One of their goals is to learn to communicate with every living creature in their language. In fact, animals do not use language in the same way that people do. However, many animals do communicate using sounds. For example, dogs can whine, bark or snarl. These sounds may express fear, danger, hunger, or other information. A chicken can produce more than ten signals whereas a dolphin has a range of more than twenty different sounds.

Some birds, such as the gray parrot, can even copy human speech. Once a parrot managed to learn 120 words, which is amazing. Nevertheless, humans are the only animals that can use speech to express ideas. Even if animals are trained to reproduce sounds similar to those used by people, it’s still not speech.

Задание №S1_30

A river is fresh water flowing across the land surface. All rivers start at the highest point in an area. It can be a mountain or a hill. There rainwater or melting snow forms tiny streams. As the river flows downstream, it gains more water. It gets water from other streams, rivers, springs, added rainfall, and other water sources. When one stream meets another, they merge together. This may result in a bigger river. Usually, rivers flow to a larger body of water. It can be an ocean, a sea or a lake. We call the end of a river its mouth.

Rivers flow in channels. The bottom of the channel is called the bed. The sides of the channel are called the banks. In the past, people preferred to build settlements along rivers. Rivers give us water for irrigation and drinking. Rivers also provide us with food, energy and transportation routes.

Задание №S1_31

Ice hockey is a popular team sport. It developed in Canada from games played with sticks and a ball which was later substituted with a puck. Both men and women play hockey in schools and clubs, on amateur and professional teams, on national and international levels. Ice hockey is usually played on a surface called a rink. Several boundary lines run across the rink. Two blue lines divide the rink into three zones.

Hockey is a rough sport, with a great deal of body contact between the players. Hockey players wear ice skates and move with great speed and skill across the ice. The game starts with a face-off in the center of the rink. Two teams of six players compete to score the most points. A team scores when it moves the puck into the opponent’s goal. Now ice hockey is a part of the Winter Olympics both for men and women.

Задание №S1_32

More and more people all over the world try to live green. That means they have to recycle. Recycling is the process of sorting and collecting rubbish and using it to create new products. It is an excellent way of preserving natural resources and saving energy. That is why everybody should know that more than a half of what we throw away can be successfully recycled. We can recycle almost anything. The most common materials to recycle are plastic, glass and paper.

Recycling is very important for the mankind. Only if we recycle our litter, we can get rid of huge landfills which take a lot of space and cause the global warming. Recycling also helps to save our forests from being cut down. It is interesting to know that recycled materials produce up to 73% less air pollution. It is up to the common people to sort their rubbish and recycle things.

Задание №S1_33

Most children love Christmas. In Great Britain the holiday begins on the 24th of December. People stop their work early and gather at home with their kids. Parents cover the presents in special paper and put them under the Christmas tree. Children leave a stocking for Santa Claus when they go to bed.

Santa Claus is a big man with white hair and red clothes. He brings presents for children during the night. If the house has a fireplace, the children sometimes leave their stockings by the fire. They are sure that Santa Claus comes down the chimney. Mothers and fathers tell their children that Santa Claus only comes when they are sleeping. However, children find it difficult to sleep well at Christmas night. In the morning they wake up early to see what Santa put there for them. After breakfast they open their other presents around the tree.

Задание №S1_34

Horses have long been domesticated by people, but we still do not know much about these animals. For instance, many people think that horses are colour blind and can only see in shades of grey. However, it is not true. Horses do see colours, but they may not see them as vividly as we do. This is because they can only see two of the three visible wavelengths in the light spectrum. This is somewhat similar to the way people who are colour blind see. Your horse doesn’t see the colour red, but they can see blues and greens. So, the lovely red apple or the bright orange carrot you offer as a treat may actually appear brownish or greenish to your horse.

Horses have the largest eyes of any land mammal. Using both eyes, horses see virtually 360 degrees and the horse almost has a complete sphere of vision around its body with only a few small blind spots. They are not a problem for horses as by moving their head they see what they need perfectly.

Задание №S1_35

Corals are sea animals that stay in one place during their lives. Corals can be very colourful underwater, but most types fade when they die or when they are removed from the water.

Corals live in all the oceans of the world, in places where the water is warm.

Some types live alone. Many types live together in groups called colonies. In fact, several different types of corals together can form really huge colonies. These colonies are called coral reefs. They look like plants.

People have long used corals to make decorations. But this and other human activities have put many corals at risk. Rising ocean temperatures, oil spills and chemical pollution harm corals. Boats that float over reefs may also damage corals. People must do everything they can to protect them from extinction.

Задание №S1_36

Everybody knows about ants. Ants are small insects. They are usually yellow, brown, red or black. In various stories and fables ants are shown as hardworking creatures. They seem to be moving all the time, carrying objects to their homes. Ants can lift about 20 times their own body weight, which is amazing.

Ants are social insects. This means that they live together in organized communities called colonies. Ants are found almost everywhere in the world, but they are most common in hot areas. They make anthills or live under the ground. Some cultures use ants for food and medicine. However, in many countries ants are considered pests. This is so because they can get into cupboards around the house. In fact, ants are very hard to remove from the house as it is difficult to destroy a whole colony of ants.

Задание №S1_37

A mountain is a form of land that rises high in a limited area. It is higher and steeper than a hill. Mountains must be higher than 600 meters. They consist of rocks and earth. They usually have steep, sloping sides. They also have sharp or slightly rounded peaks. Some mountains may have trees which grow on their sides. Very high mountains may have snow on their peaks. Long chains or groups of mountains are mountain ranges. They can be short or very long. A group of these makes a mountain system.

Mountains exist on every continent of our planet and even beneath the ocean. In fact, some of the highest mountains are at the bottom of the sea. For example, Hawaii is at the top of a volcanic mountain in the Pacific Ocean. More than half the mountain is below water. 75% of the world’s countries have mountains.

Задание №S1_38

There is nothing fancy or expensive about happiness. On the contrary, happiness is simple and slow. It means choosing peace and quiet over excitement. It is wearing your old pyjamas and watching a movie the day before Christmas. It is sitting in your window watching the weather while sipping your favourite tea on a rainy day. It is looking into the bonfire surrounded by your friends and family while your bread is slowly baking.

Happiness is always about appreciating the simple pleasures in life and thus it can be achieved on a really low budget. You cannot buy the right atmosphere or a sense of togetherness. It’s all about time, interest and engagement in the people around you. Thus, happiness is an atmosphere which is not improved by spending more money on it, but rather, in some ways, the opposite. After all, the best things in life are absolutely free.

Задание №S1_39

Education is vital for modem people. Now in most countries one can get education for free. However, it was not like that in the past. In ancient Rome people did not have any formal education. Parents but not schools provided children with knowledge and skills at that time. These could be military, domestic or agricultural skills.

Then schools appeared. They were only for boys between 9 and 12 years old who came from wealthy families. Girls could not study there. Roman schools taught writing and speaking skills and poetry. Foreign languages were also very important. Students had to learn some subjects in Greek to help them master this difficult language. Best students got books as a reward from schools. That was a very expensive present as books were rare at that time. School teachers were deeply respected by the Romans and earned a high salary.

Задание №S1_40

Everybody knows about ducks. The duck is a water bird. There are about 100 species, or types, of ducks. They are found almost all over the world. These birds are rather small. Soft inner feathers protect them from cold. A gland near the tail produces oil. This oil helps protect the outer feathers from water. Most types of ducks feed at the water surface. They dip their heads below the surface while tipping up their tails. They eat many plants and insects.

Many ducks nest on the ground near water, but some types nest in trees. They take care of their ducklings until they can feed themselves and then let them roam free. Many types of ducks migrate, or fly long distances to spend different seasons in different regions. People keep ducks for their meat, eggs, and feathers. Some hunters shoot ducks for sport.

Задание №S1_41

According to many surveys, Zetlanders are the happiest people in Europe. Zetland is also one of the happiest countries in the world. This has created a lot of media interest. It is important to point out that there are several reasons why Zetlanders are so happy. Firstly, judging by the statistics, Zetlanders are the ones who meet most often with their friends and family, which helps them feel calm and peaceful. Secondly, the economy of Zetland is aimed at reducing risk, uncertainty and anxiety among citizens. Zetlanders understand that while paying taxes they are investing in their society and collective well-being.

Of course, this country is not perfect, but it can definitely be a source of inspiration for all of us. We should start by looking at ourselves and realizing that anything we do influences the people around us. Thus, we are responsible for our own well-being. That’s what Zetlanders understand very well.

Задание №S1_42

 Modem medicine is developing very fast. New important discoveries are made by scientists every day. Still, you should not think that in ancient times medicine was primitive. In the Roman Empire doctors made very important discoveries. Without them modem medicine would have been impossible.

Roman doctors were mainly Greek slaves. At first they were poor and had a very low status. Later Roman doctors began to write books about illnesses and their treatment. In the first century BC a Roman doctor suggested that tiny animals like rats caused disease. Unfortunately with no modem equipment there was no way of testing his theory. The Romans were also skilled engineers, and they created a system of public health. They also knew that dirt could be a reason for disease. That is why they paid special attention to keeping their towns clean.

Задание №S1_43

According to the statistics, doing crafts is one of the most popular hobbies these days. However, as more and more people choose to live green, their attention turns to not simply doing crafts, but upcycling. Upcycling means you can take the things that you own but do not use anymore and then turn them into new treasures. Once you upcycle one thing, you will probably want to do it with everything you have ever used. To get started, find the things in your house that are just gathering dust. Rather than throwing them away, think about some potential projects you could create. For example, you can spray some paint on an old glass jar to turn it into a modern vase or make a magazine rack with old plastic bottles. There are no limits for your creativity and imagination with upcycling. If you don’t know where to start, check the hundreds of ideas for upcycling on the Internet.


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